Now, we are going to be covering where all of these different kinds of seventh-chords appear within a key by building them off of different scale degrees.
First, we will take the major scale:
Notice how there are only four different seventh chord possibilities: the major seventh, minor seventh, half-diminished seventh, and dominant seventh. This should be pretty easy to memorize.
As for the natural minor scale, it is just a reordering of the major scale:
Now, we add the leading tone for the harmonic minor scale:
The harmonic minor scale, because of the raised leading tone, creates an augmented seventh as well as a fully-diminished seventh. Also, we have a seventh-chord we have never discussed before… the minor-major seventh which is a minor triad with a M7 interval from the root on top:
Finally, the melodic minor scale:
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