Similar to augmentation where the rhythmic value ratios of a melodic line are uniformly multiplied, they can also be reduced.
This would be the process of diminution. So by reducing every value in half; a whole-note becomes a half-note (duh), a dotted half-note becomes a dotted quarter-note, an eighth-note becomes a sixteenth-note, etc.
Take a look at the example below:
Here you can see a lot of example of diminution. The first half of the second measure is a diminution of the entire first measure. Same goes for the first half of mm. 4 being an octave transposition and diminution of the full mm. 3.
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